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A Mosaic of Traditions - One Virtual Sangha => Buddha Basics - Beginner Zone => Topic started by: Samana Johann on September 12, 2017, 11:47:16 pm

Title: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 12, 2017, 11:47:16 pm
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Ashin Janakabhivamsa
(1900-1977)

Dana (Charity)
"Abhidhamma in daily life ([url]http://sangham.net/index.php?action=tpmod;dl=item134[/url])" (pdf online englische Version)

from: Abhidhamma In Daily Life By Ashin Janakabhivamsa (as book shared as Dhamma-Dana by Buda-edu.)

Content:
  • Dana means giving charity (#post_ae)
  • Offertories and Recipient Promote Keen Cetana (#post_be)
  • The Quantity of Offertories (#post_ce)
  • Lavish Dana but Meager Cetana (#post_de)
  • Charity is Analogous to Sowing Seeds (#post_ee)
  • The Recipient Also Determines the Result (#post_fe)
  • Sanghika Dana (Charity Meant for the Order of the Sangha) (#post_ge)
  • How to Projects One's Goodwill (#post_he)
  • Mental Attitude While Offering Alms-Food (#post_ie)
  • The Invited Meal Can Become A Sanghika Dana (#post_je)
  • A Donor's Goodwill (#post_ke)
  • How Good Results Differ According to Dana (#post_le)
  • Offerings of the Buddha (#post_me)
  • How to Pay Homage from a Distance (#post_ne)
  • Three types of Cetana (#post_oe)
  • The Classification of Good Deeds (Kusala) (#post_pe)
  • Superior and Inferior Kusala (#post_qe)
  • The Benefits of Dana (#post_re)
  • Does Dana Prolong Samsara? (#post_se)
  • Two Types of kusala (Wholesome Deeds) (#post_te)
  • How Dana Assists the Fulfillment of Perfection (#post_ue)
  • Those Who Can Do Without Dana (#post_ve)
  • The Joy of Giving Dana (#post_we)
  • The Generous are the Wealthy (#post_xe)
  • A Rich Person is like A River, etc (#post_ye)
  • We Cannot Do Without Dana (#post_ze)
  • Conclusion (#post_zze)


Dana means giving charity..

There are two types of Dana, namely
  • i.                    Cetana Dana
  • ii.                  Vatthu Dana
Offerings of goods, robes, monasteries, etc are classified as vatthu (material) Dana, while the goodwill in these charitable acts is called cetana (volition). It is this cetana that produces beneficial results here and in the next existences, not the ma-terial things that are offered. This mental attitude which is projected onto the offer-tories determines the good results in future existences. If the offertories are good and noble, so also in the cetana.

A Further explanation: If, during an offering of alms-food to the Sangha, a donor has as his object of awareness the food he offers and the Sangha he is offering to; then a continuous stream of cetana (volition) occurs incessantly in his mind-con-tinuum.

That cetana arises and disappears in very rapid succession, but does not disap-pears totally. The forces created by the cetanas just lie dormant to produce corres-ponding results later. (How the forces of kamma remain dormant in the mind-body-continuum will be explained in a section on kamma).

Taking into consideration that more than one trillion units of consciousness can occur and disappear within the snap of fingers, one might imagine the magnitude of cetana that occurred during an almsgiving rite which lasts, three hours.

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Offertories and Recipient Promote Keen Cetana

Although offertories such as alms-food and recipients of offertories cannot follow the donor to the next life and bring benevolent, they certainly help to promote a keen cetena in the donors. For example offering specially prepared alms-food to the Sangha incites a vigorous cetana whilst offering ordinary alms food incites a somewhat feeble cetana. Again, charity given to worthy recipients incite a strong cetana whereas charity given to nominal recipient incite a frail cetana. In this way, of-fertories donated and the persons receiving the charity help promote a keen cetana in the mind of the donors.

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The Quantity of Offertories

The respective efforts exerted to offer different amounts of offer different amounts of offertories may differ accordingly. For the zealous efforts in procuring a large quantity of offertories there will arise a strong cetana. Procuring only a small quantity of offertories will naturally call for less efforts and the corresponding cetana will be relatively less. In preparing for a large amount of offertories the pubba cetana (prior volition) will accordingly be immense, and vice versa. Therefore Dana of large and small quantity differ in effects because of the duration of cetana in each case.

If the Dana be grand and lavish so also is the cetana. During the time of Dana, the munca cetana (the prevailing volition) will also be in proportion to the Dana. After the Dana had been made, apara cetana (the post-charity cetana) will also be of equal scale whenever you think of this Dana again and again. Such states of mind are of common occurance.

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Lavish Dana but Meager Cetana

Some donors offer alms-food, building, clothes, ritually or perfunctorily. If so, even though may be lavish and grand, their cetana is no match to it - they do not feel ap-preciate joy because the good deed was done with little volition. Therefore quantity or quality alone cannot determine the generosity of a donor. When King Dutthagamani Abaya was on his death-bed, he did not feel much joy in his merit of building the great Maha Cedi Pagoda, instead he felt great joy in recalling his small merit of offering one meal to a monk in the forest. Due to this great cetana he was reborn in the celestial abode of Tusita Devas. Therefore keep in mind that cetana only will determine your destiny, not the quantity or value of gifts you have offered. Cetana is more important than the lavishness of your charity.

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Charity is Analogous to Sowing Seeds

Recipients are the fields
Donors are the farmers,
Offertories are the seeds sown
Benefits are the fruits


In the Peta Vathu Pali text it is said, "The recipient of the charity is like the land; the donor the farmer, the offertories the seeds sown. The benefits accrued later through out samsara are the fruits that are borne from the plants.

Let us elaborate:
  • a. In agriculture, the type of soil whether good or bad, determines the yield. Similarly, the integrity and nobility of the recipient determine the nature of be-neficial results.
  • b. Just as vitality of the seeds sown determined the growth and productivity of the plants; the purity of offerings, gifts, whether they are procured through right livelihood or not, and the quantity, determine the nature of beneficial results.
  • c. Just as farmers will reap harvest in conformity with their skill in farming and efforts, so also donors will enjoy results depending on their level of intelligence, appreciative joy and their sincere effort in giving Dana.
  • d. Farmers have to prepare to till and plough their fields properly, before sowing the seeds to ensure a good yield. Likewise donors must have pubba cetana (pre-charity goodwill) before giving Dana. Result will depend on the in-tensity of their pubba cetana.
  • e. Farmers need to weed and water their fields; only then the plants will flourish. In the same way donors need to recall their charity and feel satis-faction for the meritorious deed. This apara cetana (post-charity volition) of the donor determined the nature of beneficial results.
  • f. If farmer, through folly, destroy their sprouts and seedlings they cannot enjoy the product of their labor. Similarly if donors feel that they shouldn't have done the almsgiving and regret for it afterwards, then they fail to enjoy good results due to their feeble apara cetana.
  • g. Even though the land and seeds are all in good condition, the sowing should be done in the right season, the right time so as to get a healthy crop. In the same way one should give alms to the needy, at the suitable time and place. Such charity brings about the best results.

here are such valuable lessons and guidance regarding Dana in the Peta Vatthu Pali text. Therefore in giving charity, the correct choice of recipient, the appropri-ateness of the time and place are very important. The Dana must be done with a blissful mind and cheerful volition. Moreover, one should not do Dana with a view to getting worldly wealth because such a wish is associated with greed and craving. Your cetana should be as pure as possible.[/list]

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The Recipient Also Determines the Result

In the Peta Vatthu Pali Text it is mentioned that recipients of Dana are like fields where the seeds are sown. Farmlands, in general, are of three grades; the very fertile, the mediocre and the poor. Likewise, recipients are also of different grades. Just as farms free of weeds and grass are highly productive, so also if recipients are void of greed, hatred and ignorance, the donors enjoy benefits all the more. Just as farms will yield a plentiful harvest when they are rich in manure and fertilizers, so also good results will be accrued by donors when the recipients are persons of virtue and wisdom.

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Sanghika Dana (Charity Meant for the Order of the Sangha)


The Pali word Sanghika Dana means offering alms and other requisites to the Order of the Sangha. Suppose you donate one kyat to an association; all members rich or poor, are entitled to that one kyat. Similarly if a bowl of alms-food or a set of robes is offered to the Sangha, then all members of the order are entitled to those of - fertories. You need not go around the world to give alms to the Order of the Sangha. An offer to any member of the Sangha in general will automatically amount to Sanghika Dana. All members are entitled to such offertories. They can share it between them.

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How to Projects One's Goodwill

In offering Sanghika Dana, a donor's mind must be directed to the Order of the Sangha in general. Even though you utter, "Sanghassa demi - I offer it to the Order of the Sangha", if you have in mind a particular monk or a particular monastery, your charity cannot be Sanghika Dana. Offering alms food to any monk on daily alms-round, or to certain monk designated by the Order can be classified as true Sanghika Dana, when only the donor's mind is truly directed to the whole of Sangha.

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Mental Attitude While Offering Alms-Food


The virtuous devotee, endowed with great faith in the Buddha wishing to promote long endurance of his teaching and emergence of succession of good, dutiful Sangha who would maintain the prosperity and purity of sasana, should support the Sangha organization by offering regular alms-food to its members. But when the alms-food has been prepared ready for offering, the devotee must remove any attachment as, "This is my Sayadaw; this is the monks I have helped ordained." Instead, he must in-cline his mind to the whole Sangha while making the offering uttering at the same time, "I offer this to the Sangha, Sanghassa demi." When the Dana performance is made daily in such a manner, the offering becomes a true Sanghika Dana.

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The Invited Meal Can Become A Sanghika Dana


Going to a nearby monastery, the invitation must be offered to the responsible head-monk. "Reverend Sir, I wish to make an offering of alms-food at my house to-morrow at 6 am. Be kind enough to arrange to send one or two or three monks to partake of the meal. (One should not mention including yourself or the head-monk in making the invitation.)"

And, while making preparation for the tomorrow's offering of meals, one's mind should be directed to the whole Sangha, not to any particular monk of a particular monastery, and repeating often "Sanghassa demi."

When the monk arrives the next morning for meal one must not feel let-down or disappointed if the recipient monks happens to be one of lower rank or junior status. One should remind one self, "The offering is not made to him in particular, it is meant for the whole Sangha" and make the meal offering with genuine respect and due de-votion.

If the monk who comes to receive the offering should be the head monk himself, the devotees should not feel exultant either, he should remind himself that the of-fering is being made not just to the head monk only, but to the whole Sangha of which he is a member. Thus, when one can incline towards whole Sangha, the offering make to a monk appointed by the Sangha can be counted as Sanghika Dana, offering made to the whole Sangha.

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A Donor's Goodwill

Once upon a time an immoral monk who was disliked by most devotees and donors are assigned by the Sangha. But a donor was not despaired, having his mind directed upon the Order of Sangha he respectfully offered food and other requisites to this bad monk. He treated this immoral monk as if he was Buddha himself, washing the feet of the monk as he arrived, seating him on a well scented seat under a canopy. Since his mind was directed onto the whole community, his charity qualifies as sublime Sanghika Dana, although the recipient is bad Bhikkhu.

Let us go further. Noticing the reverence he got from this donor, as mentioned above, the bad Bhikkhu considered to have found himself a devoted donor. The same evening the bad Bhikkhu wanted to do some repairs to his monastery; so he came to his donor to borrow a hoe. This time, the donor treated him with disrespect. He nudged the hoe with his foot and said rudely, "There!"

His neighbor asked him about the two different treatments he accorded to the monk. He replied that in the morning his reverence was directed to the Order of the Sangha and not to any monk in particular. For his rude behavior in the evening, he said, "The bad monk, as an individual, deserved no homage or respect." The lesson is that when offering is made you should project your mind onto the whole Sangha Order so as to be able to count it as a Sanghika Dana.

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How Good Results Differ According to Dana


Even if you offer alms to one, or two or more Bhikkhus, if you select them in per - sonal terms the Dana becomes punggalika Dana (charity meant for individuals.) If you do so, even though you offer alms to a thousand Bhikkhus, you are only doing pug-galika Dana. Except Dana specially offered to Buddha and Paccekabuddhas, Sanghika Dana excels all other forms of Dana. When we talk of Sanghika Dana, the Arahats are also included. In the case of punggalika Dana, Arahats may or may not be included. So we can safely deduce that Sanghika Dana amounts to offerings alms to the holiest Bhikkhus whereas punggalika Dana needs careful selection of the recipients Bhikkhu. It is quite logical to conclude that Sanghika Dana is much more powerful and much more beneficial than punggalika Dana.

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Offerings of the Buddha

During the time of Gotama Buddha devotees were privileged to offer alms to the Buddha in person. But today the Buddha is no more with us in person. So we have to learn from the texts how to offer alms in devotion to the Buddha.

First you must prepare alms-food enough for one Bhikkhu and place in front of a statue of Buddha. If there happens to be no statue nearby, you can create a mental image of the Buddha and offer alms and reverence to that image. Then you must ded-icate your cetana to the Buddha in person.

After such offering, the alms food may be given to a devotee who does voluntary service in keeping the pagoda precinct clean and tidy, whether he is lay person or Bhikkhu. A voluntary worker who keeps uposatha Sīla (Eight Precepts) can eat the alms-food before doing any service if the noon is drawing near.

At the time of great ceremonious charity if one wishes to offer alms-food to the Sangha led by the Buddha, the same procedure should be adopted to make offering of alms-food to the Buddha.

In offering robes in devotion to the Buddha the same attitude should be main-tained. Monks who give voluntary services to pagodas are entitles to attire themselves in such robes. Care should be taken that offering flowers, incense or joss sticks, bou-quets and water at the pagoda should not become a mess in front of statues and images. Your Dana must be given with tidiness, you will get good results in this life and hereafter. Your future existences will also be clean and flawless.

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How to Pay Homage from a Distance

Usually, most devotees pay homage and offer alms to the Buddha images in their own household because they cannot afford the time to visit pagodas and monasteries everyday. There have been arguments on whether this is a deed of merit or not. Since we have already learnt that the deciding factor is the cetana, we can be sure that great benefits will be realized. If your volition is projected onto the Buddha, it is decidedly kusala cetana, so there is no reason not to gain any merit.

On hundred and eighteen aeons, kappa (worlds) ago, the Atthadassi Buddha at-tained Enlightenment. One day a layman saw the Buddha and his Arahat disciples traveling through the air by supernormal power, he offered flowers and scents from a distance. Due to his single good deed he was never reborn in the four woeful states for thousand of years and became an Arahat in the time of our Gotama Buddha. He was then known as Desapujaka Thera.

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Three types of Cetana

All forms of charity for three types of cetana namely
  • a. Pubba cetana (vorausgehender Wille/Haltung)
  • b. Munca cetana (vorherrschender Wille/Haltung)
  • c. Apara cetana (der Spende nachfolgender Wille/Haltung)
  • a. Pubba Cetana

    The good volition which occurs while procuring and preparing for charity is pubba cetana. Your cetana must be free from vain pride or selfishness such as, "I am the builder of this pagoda, I am the donor of this monastery; I am the donor of offer-tories" etc. While you are preparing for the charity you and members of your family must not indulge in quarrels and disagreements. You must not be hesitant in carrying on with the good deed once you have already decided. When you feel delighted and cheerful during our preparations throughout, you may then rest assured pure and sincere pubbha cetana will prevail.
  • b. Munca Cetana

    Munca means renunciation, or detachment. Therefore, in the act of giving charity you must renounce the offertories from your possession completely. In offering alms-food to a bhikkhu your thought should be "I renounce this alms-food from my pos-session" and then physically offer alms to the recipient. This is munca cetana (pre-vailing volition). While performing kusala (good) deeds, no akusala (bad) minds such as greed, pride, anger, or attachment to the recipient, etc. should interfere. You should not crave for future benefits. Just freely let go the offertory generously.
  • c. Apara Cetana

    The third cetana, which occurs at the completion of the deed of the merit, is the bliss of accomplishment you enjoy for having done a virtuous act. You feel joyous for your accomplishment of the deed, recall it often and wish to repeat it soon. This is the burgeoning of your apara cetana (post-charity volition).

    However at a later time apara cetana can be contaminated if you feel dissatisfied at the loss of the property donated or if you feel disappointed with the abbot for whom you have donated a monastery. Then you might ponder, "May be I should not have given that charity." If so, not only your apara cetana is spoiled but also you develop an evil attitude of dissatisfaction (akusala dosa).

A Warning

Building monasteries, constructing pagodas, etc. are Dana of great magnitude. There is also Dana of less magnitude when you offer alms or garments or when you give food, water, etc; to the needy. In giving charity of a great magnitude, you are liable to encounter interference from within yourself as well as from malicious ele-ments.

Therefore if you plan to perform Dana of great magnitude you should not only plan for yourself but also seek good advice from friends and learned teachers. Only then you will get worthy recipients for your Dana. Choice of recipient is not so im - portant in doing Dana of small magnitude; even feeding animals has its own merit. The crucial factor in doing Dana is to have the right attitude. Try to perform Sanghika Dana whenever possible. Never be attached to the offertories you intend to donate. Let your mind be filled with complete renunciation of the material things that you have set aside for charity. This attitude is called mutta cagi (mutta means detachment, renunciation and cagi means one with generous habit). So all donors should bear in mind not to be attached to the recipient; not to be attached to the offertories; not to pray or long for worldly luxury in the abode of humans and Devas; only to have the noble desire to attain the supreme bliss of Nibbāna. This will make you the ideal donor.

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The Classification of Good Deeds (Kusala)

In the chapter on cetasika (mental factors) we have come across alobha (non-at-tachment), adosa (non-hatred) and amoha (non-delusion). These are called the three roots of hetuka (fundamentals). Like the roots of a tree which support the whole or-ganism to be vigorous, these hetuka (roots) cause growth and development of the cor-responding cittas and cetasikas.
Therefore kusala citta (good minds) can also be classified into two types:
  • a. Dvihetuka kusala citta, which is good mind associated with two roots - alobha and adosa.
  • b. Tihetuka kusala citta, the good mind associated with all three roots - aloba, adosa and amoha.
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a. Dvihetuka Kusala Citta

When a person fosters a good mind with aloba (non-greed) and adosa (non-hatred) his meritorious mind belongs to Dvihetuka kusala citta. Samma ditthi (right belief) is the acceptance of the cause and effect of kamma. This wisdom, which is in - cluded in the ten moral deeds, is also called Kammasakata Nana.

When an infant or even a wild tribe gives away something in charity, he feels a certain joy for having done so. But this joy is not accompanied by Kammasakata Nana, so there is no amoha in his kusala citta. There only are present two roots - aloba and adosa. Hence such citta is termed dvihetuka kusala citta.

Today, many Buddhists perform charities and alms-giving customarily without the proper knowledge about kamma and its effect. Such generosity is dvihetuka kusala citta. Even the learned do good deeds perfunctorily, so their kusala falls into the same category. In a nutshell, all good deeds done without insight-wisdom are classified as dvihetuka kusala.

b. Tihetuka Kusala Citta

A good mind associated with three roots alobha, adosa and amoha is called Tihetuka kusala citta. All good deeds done with the accompaniment of Kammasakata Nana (understanding of kamma and its result) fall into this category. Today many edu-cated devotees do good deed for the sake of Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha as well as for their parents and elders with good attitude. Since their minds are associated with clear comprehension of resulting benefits in samsara, their deeds become Tehetuka kusala. If charity is done with vipassana thought, "These material things are really ma-terial groups, rupa, kalapa, associated with anicca, dukkha and anattā characteristics" it is needless to say that such mentality is decidedly Tihetuka kusala citta at tis best. It is therefore imperative that elders and parents should teach their young about kamma and its result, as well as the basic understanding of anicca, dukkha and anattā before doing meritorious deeds and before sharing the merits gained.
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Superior and Inferior Kusala

In Pali, ukkattha means the superior while omaka is inferior. With both dvihetuka and tihetuka citta, if they are preceded and succeeded at the moment of arising of pubba cetana or while apara cetana is arising respectively by kusala cittas, the deed is classified as ukkattha kusala (superior good deed). If they are preceded or succeeded by akusala cittas, the deed is classified as omaka kusala (inferior good deed).

When we say preceded or succeeded by good or bad minds, we men only the atti-tudes directly related to the good deed done. If kusala and akusala ciita are not con-nected with the good deed done, we cannot say there is accompaniment of their kusala or akusala.

Let us suppose a devotee just before he gives a great Dana is furious with a debtor and sues him. This is, of course dosa akusala. But if his wrath does not affect him with respect to giving charity and he feels delighted after meritorious deed, his dosa akusala arising from his wrath does not adversely affect the quality of his Dana kusala.

Summing up, we have thus, tihetuka ukkattha means good deed done with both pubba cetana and apara cetana. If one of these cetana is missing ir becomes tihetuka omaka kusala. If both cetana are absent, the deed belongs all the more to the tihetuka amoka type. Similarly dvihetuka ukkattha and dvihetuka omaka should be under-stood. In the classification of sīla (moral precept) too, the categories of pubba, munca and apara cetana; those of dvihetuka and tihetuka; of ukkattha and omaka can be ap-plied similarly.

Maxim:
  • i. A meritorious deed accompanied by insight of kamma and its effect is tihetuka kusala.
  • ii. If such insight is absent it becomes dvihetuka kusala.
  • iii. If a good deed is preceded and succeeded by kusala citta, it is ukkattha kusala.
  • iv. If kusala citta arises before and after a good deed, it is omaka kusala.
Another Method of Classification

Dana may be classified into three levels:
  • i. Hina Dana (inferior)
  • ii. Majjhima Dana (medium)
  • iii. Panita Dana (superior)
This classification is based on the offertories donated. If the offertories are in-ferior to what you consume, it is hina Dana (inferior charity). If you donate things that are of equal quality to what you use, it is majjhima Dana (mediocre charity). Of you give away offertories better than what you consume, it is panita Dana (supreme charity). Hina Dana is also known as dasa Dana that given to a slave, majjhima Dana is sahaya Dana that given to friends and associates; and panita as sami Dana, that given to one's superior.

Feeble desire, effort and volition make hina Dana; mediocre desire, effort and vo-lition make majjhima Dana; vigorous will, industry and volition make panita Dana.

Charity done with the hope of getting praise such as donor of monasteries or pa-godas or popularity is hina Dana. Charity performed with speculations of benefits in future existences throughout samsara is majjhima Dana. Charity given without consid-eration for future benefits but with sincere goodwill in conformity with the custom of the virtuous and the wise is panita Dana.

Note:

Good deeds done without any hope for benefit is far nobler than those done with some hope for future rewards. Selfless, altruistic goodwill for the welfare of others be-longs only to the noblest personages such as Bodhisattvas.

Charity given with the hope of acquiring worldly luxury is hina Dana, charity given with the intention of escaping from samsara is majjhima (medium). Great charities of Bodhisattvas who give them as fulfillment of Dana parami in the hope of helping sen - tient beings to free themselves from samsara are listed as panita Dana. Such are varying degree of goods deeds dependent upon one's mental attitudes. (In other mor-alities such as Sīla etc. also similar varying degrees of good deeds can be found).

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The Benefits of Dana

The benefits of Dana need no elaboration. The good of feeding a small animal just once brings about (a) long life, (b) beauty, (c) prosperity, (d) strength and (e) wisdom for the next one hundred existences. When reborn in human or Deva world, due to his Dana in this life, he outshines other beings.

In the time of Kassapa Buddha there were two monks who were good friendsOne of them was a generous donor while the other was not. Since they both observed Sīla (precepts), they were reborn as humans and Devas up to the time of Gotama Buddha. In each and every existence, the generous always excelled the other in status. In the final existence they were both reborn as humans in the court of King Kosala. The generous donor became a prince, and the other, the son of a minister. While the prince slept in a golden cradle under a regal white umbrella, the other slept in a wooden cradle. Although they both attained Nibbāna ultimately the benefits they enjoyed in each existences were quite different.

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Does Dana Prolong Samsara?

Some heave the wrong belief that Dana prolongs samara (the cycle of rebirths). In the story of two friends, we have seen that the one who gave charity was not late in attaining Nibbāna. Therefore it is illogical to assert that Dana prolongs samasara. In fact, the impurity of the mind of the donor is responsible for the round of rebirths. One's lustful greed to enjoy luxuries of humans and Devas for the Dana given causes one to linger in the cycle of samsara.

Some erroneously say that Buddha himself has to struggle longer in samsara be-cause he cherishes Dana in every existences. This is absolutely untrue. Due to Dana parami (perfection of charity) an infinite number of Buddhas have attained Supreme Enlightenment while we are still swimming along the stream of deaths and rebirths. Can we attribute this to our Danas which far exceed those of the Buddhas? The Bod-hisattva Vessantara who gave charity in an unprecedented magnitude attained Buddhahood after only two existences. Therefore it is quite obvious that Dana is not the cause of long sufferings in samsara.

We have now seen that Dana does not lengthen samsara. It is only our con-sciousness soiled with tanha (lust) that plays a great influence upon us and prolongs the samara. All Bodhisattvas strive only for Sabbannuta Nana (Omniscient Wisdom) and they have to wander around in samsara until all essential paramis requisite for it are fulfilled. They have to accumulate the wisdom deserving of a Buddha. An apt analogy would be a mango fruit. It will not ripen until and unless it is mature.

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Two Types of kusala (Wholesome Deeds)

A good deed not with the hope of escape from samsara but to enjoy the luxuries of humans and Devas is known as Vatta nissita kusala. A good deed done with a view of attaining Nibbāna is known as Vivatta nissita kusala. Even wholesome deeds such as Dana, Sīla, etc, if of the Vatta nissita type, will lengthen one's suffering in samsara. On the other hand, all forms of Vivatta nissita kusala will propel you to escape from samsara and assist you to attain your noble desire which is Nibbāna.

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How Dana Assists the Fulfillment of Perfection

Generous donors are usually endowed with wealth in their future lives so that they can lead an easy life. The wealth - who had done Vivatta nissita kusala in the past life - can observe Sīla (precepts) and keep uposatha Sīla (Sabbath). The poor and needy, having to struggle for a living cannot observe precepts. In pursuing education too, the rich have the facilities. Let alone costly schools, even in monastic schools where education is free of charge, children of the rich outnumber the poor. And the children of the wealth naturally receive more attention.

A wealthy person can easily practice the virtue of patience when he faces in-solence or insult because he can ignore them with his own will power and self-esteem. But a poor person, if he is insulted, is obsessed by the complex that poverty invites in-justice or insult and so he reacts vigorously. Since a rich person generally enjoys re-spect from various sectors he usually shows loving- kindness and compassion to them. A poor man is usually deprived of love and respect from others so he fosters anger or vain pride instead of loving-kindness and compassion. Therefore Dana (charity) helps the fulfillment of other parami perfections such as khanti (patience) and mettā (loving-kindness).

In this world it is difficult for the poor to keep promises. Here too, Dana helps one to be honest and to keep promises. Without Dana, it is very difficult to fulfill parami perfections. That is why each and every Bodhisattva first fulfilled the perfection of Dana parami. Dana comes first in the ten Perfections. Our Buddha Gotama fulfilled the required paramis starting with Dana. As the recluse Sumedha he fulfilled the Dana parami first. And King Vessantara, the last life as Bodhisattva, fulfilled Dana parami as the final stage of all perfections.

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Those Who Can Do Without Dana

There is a class of people who do not need to perform deeds of charity. They are the great yogis who strive earnestly to escape from samsara in the present existence. They are occupied full time in samatha and vipassana work. If they spend their time in the performance of Dana, it will only be a waster of time and effort. Dana is not ne-cessary for them as they are fully intent on gaining liberation very soon, they must zealously practice meditation day and night. Once a Bhikkhu from Madalay who was always eager to perform Dana came to practice meditation under the guidance of Maha Gandhron Sayadaw who was our Preceptor. One morning the Sayadaw saw the Bhikkhu gathering flowers to offer the Buddha. The Sayadaw admonished the Bhikkhu saying, 'While undertaking meditation practices, be intent only on your practice, you may offer flowers later on."

The Maha Gandharon Sayadaw, himself was engaged day and night in the practice of meditation being fully resolved to liberate himself from samsara in this very ex-istence. Whether he achieved his noble aim and not, I am not in a position to know.The Maha Gandharan Sayadaw spent all his time meditation alone in his cave. Yet he did not forget to give Dana; once he came out from the cave he gave away the offer - tories in his possession to other Bhikkhus. Dana is unnecessary for a person engaged full-time in meditation. Of course charitable deeds can be done when there is time to spare. Dana is for those living the ordinary life of lay persons, as they can afford the time to do so.

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The Joy of Giving Dana

Giving Dana (charity) is indeed joyful. The generous and the charitable always feel compassion for the poor and needy. This is followed by mettā (loving-kindness) to-wards all creatures. Then you cultivate Mudita (sympathetic joy) to those who are already wealthy and prosperous. So your face beams like the full moon and ap-pearance suggests tranquility and auspices.

Recipients of charity, in return, will reciprocate loving-kindness and wish for hap-piness. They will also nurture Mudita (sympathetic joy) for the donor. Thus we can say that Dana is the main cause of flourishing of the Four Brahma Vihara Cittas (the Four Sublime States of Mind. In this way a sublime, profound Dana paves they way for cul-tivation of upekkha.

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The Generous are the Wealthy

Really wealthy persons who are free from the worry of livelihood are few in numbers. The poor, destitute and needy are comparatively numerous. The poor are bound to be those who had no credit of Dana in their previous existences. And the wealthy are definitely generous donors in their past lives. Should these rich people be contented in being prosperous in this existence? Surely not. For their wealthy and possession cannot follow them in their next life. They will no more be wealthy once they pass away. Therefore the wealthy ought to leave certain portion of their property to their heirs and give away the remaining in charity to the needy. Only then they will be prosperous in the next lives up to the attainment of Nibbāna. The golden rule in that: "Generous donor in previous life is the wealthy in this life; generous donor in this life is the wealthy in the existence to come."

Wealthy is but temporary possession; wealthy is for just once existence, one life. We should not regard our wealth as 'ours'. It should be 'ours', for the welfare of the needy.

We should not hesitate to give away our wealth to those who really need it.

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A Rich Person is like A River, etc

A virtuous rich person can be compared to a river, a tree or rain, as mentioned in the Loka Niti. Although a river contains a large amount of water, it does not drink a drop. A river serves only for the good of others. People come to the river to wash, to bathe or to drink. Likewise trees do not consume the fruits they bear. Fruits are borne for other people. Rain falls not only into lakes and wells but also onto barren plains and desserts.

Similar righteous rich people accumulate wealth, not just for their own use but also to help needy. They spend their wealth of the poor. Like rain which falls into lakes and barren plains alike, they help look after not only the prestigious (abbots) Sayadaw but also the poor.

As has been shown Dana (generosity) enhances the Four Sublime States (Four Brahama Vihara), Dana causes a person to have a cheerful beaming countenance. The generous are blessed with kusala in this existence. We all should never neglect the virtue of Dana, which is so powerful as to expedite sentient beings to Nibbāna.

A virtuous life means the regular observance of moral precepts (Five Precepts, Eight Precepts, etc.) earning right livelihood (samma ajiva), bathing and wearing clean clothes emanating mettā, karuna and Mudita and giving charity generously and will-ingly to all without distinction. Such a way of life brings satisfaction and happiness. One should then develop a wholesome desire to attain Nibbāna which is the complete cessation of all sufferings. There is no reason why you should linger in samsara. Dana will propel you to realize Nibbāna in the shortest time.

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We Cannot Do Without Dana

One must not assume that what is said covers all the benefits of Dana. To enu-merate all the benefits of Dana would indeed require a separate treatise in itself. If a person discards Dana according to the belief of some malicious quarters, sociable re - lations would cease and mettā (loving-kindness) will disappear. The rich will no more be charitable to the destitute. They will cultivate an attitude of disregarded and say, "Oh. Let them die. Who cares?" Humanity without Dana will in fact be very much un-civilized. And of course, incivility of mind eventually leads to savagery in physical action.

The Bodhisattva attained Self-Enlightenment and became the Tathāgata after re-nouncing wealth, power and glory of the crown only with the help and support of nu-merous donors offering him alms-food, etc. He was then able to preach his Noble Dhamma and establish the Holy Order of the Sangha to propagate his sasana with the support of wealthy devotees like Anathapindika Visakha, King Bimbisara, etc. If there had been no such generous donors there never would have been the Buddha, but also countless previous Buddhas would not have attained Omniscience if the world were void of Dana. I would thus like to make an ardent wish, " Let there be no person who denounce and ignore the benevolent deed of Dana, now and forever."

It is not feasible to list completely the benefits you get by generosity, by giving charity. Had there been no Dana, there also would be no Buddhas to show us the way to Nibbāna. Bear in mind that the cream of the society, the luxurious celestial beings, all of them are attributable to their charity; the poor and the destitute are those without generosity. Should you earnestly wish to escape from samsara, resort to Dana.

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Conclusion


The Reader's Duty

I have done my part in writing this "Abhidhamma In Daily Life" dealing with Dhamma aspects, which the general reader should know, in their everyday rela-tionship. Having gained useful knowledge from this treatise, it is the duty of the general reader to put the knowledge so gained into practical use by developing mind-fulness, self-restraint and earnest endeavor.

Knowledge and Practice

Knowledge is not practice. Mere knowledge is useless. Books can offer knowledge but cannot practice for the reader. There are many who are literate, who have gathered much useful knowledge on the practice of Dhamma but very few uses, such knowledge to one's advantage. In the midst of majority of such people in the world, chances are slim to foster good, righteous mind.

For example, many deeds of Dana are performed nowadays not with view of accu-mulate parami merits but to keep in lin[/center]e with social trend of showing off, vaunting their success and wealth for all to see; people no longer follow the path of parami laid down by noble, virtuous ones. The social climbers, in deed, know their Dana will bear no good fruit or very little, but because of their strong craving for popular acclam-ation, social acceptance and recognition, they sink to the level of doing deeds that the ignorant people do even though they know they should not.

The Wily Tiger

Here is a story from Hitopadesa - to illustrate my point - a wily tiger was too old to catch his prey. One day he kept calling loudly, "Oh travelers! Come and take this gold bangle." A traveler heard this call, so he approached the tiger and asked, "Where is the gold bangle?"

The old wily tiger showed the gold bangle in his paws. The traveler said he dared not come near him who used to be a man-eater.. Then the wily old tiger preached him a sermon as follows, "In my younger days I kill and eat human beings because I was not fortunate enough to listen to the Dhamma. As I grow older and lost my wife and children. I really felt samvega. At the time I happened to meet with a noble person who taught me to live a virtuous life making deeds of Dana. Since then I have been living a strictly righteous life. You have nothing to be afraid of. I am harmless. See, I don't even have claws and fangs. I have resolved to give this gold bangle to someone as charity, and you are the lucky one. Go bathe in the lake and come accept my gift.

Believing these persuasive words, the traveler did what he was told. When he stepped into the lake he sank into the swamp. Saying that he would help him, the tiger came and devoured the traveler.

This story from Hitopadesa gives us a moral lesson that mere knowledge is useless without morality. Educated and intelligent persons without morality endowed with cunning, charm and cleverness at deceiving can be more dangerous than the ig-norant, because they possess the knowledge to succumb wicked deeds. I would like to advise the readers not to be contended with mere knowledge, but to practice what they have digested so that they may become really virtuous persons. Here I conclude wishing you all again a long life.

Versified epilogue rendered in simple prose:

To bring this treatise to a close, here are some pertinent remarks in brief: In this modern age, although there are Bhikkhus as well as laity with resolution to strive for attainment of Nibbāna, unless the mind is intrinsically pure, they will still be far away from the Sublime State they long for.

Therefore, beginning with myself, all my companions, close associates and gener-ations to come, who wish to reach the blissful peace of Nibbāna realized by our Noble Predecessors, should study this treatise of Abhidhamma In Daily Life carefully, pre-cisely, meticulously, and strive with full diligence accordingly so as to attain the su-preme height, to become the great conqueror, the glorious victor.

Anumodana!
 
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(If seeking for possibilities, my person thinks that the book as a whole is good shared via accesstoinsight.org (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/cowork_en.html). Profe read, rendering into html standard as well as correcting pali-spelling necessary for this. Fell welcome and not restricted or limited in your inspirations and sharing, doing of merits, here time, effort and skill. If seen as assistance, something made out of feeling obligated, it even falls into a higher class of merits, virtue, Sila.

"There is nothing good, unless one does it." (Austian/German saying))
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Ron-the-Elder on September 13, 2017, 02:57:01 am
Samana Johann:  "Excellent posting regarding Dana.  Thank you.

My only concern is the idea that a recipient's worthiness is to be considered as a gate to implementation of the expression of dana.  I was taught that worthiness is never to be used as such a gate.  If this were to be the case, how would we evaluate a person's or group's worthiness?  What would be the criteria?  Very difficult to do.  We would have to be aware of their kamma over all their lifetimes and the maturity of the results of their intentional actions  (kamma-vipāka).

It was explained to me that dana was not to be considered like kamma-vipāka (the consequences of intentional actions), and it was wrong to believe that somehow we were to be the judges administering the results based upon worthiness.  Dana is to be considered more like the falling of rain, in that it blesses all those within the range and domain of our own personal intentional actions as we enact in whatever capacity we choose as sources and vectors of beneficial actions.  The Dana we contribute to our community is in fact our kamma and how we go about implementing our intentions will result in consequences not only to those we choose to assist, but will result in kamma-vipāka for us as a result of those actions.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 13, 2017, 07:16:16 am
Sadhu (for seeing this, less would)! The whole book is a treasure and more than worthy to share and study. Seeing there is so less knowledge in regard of the basic training, my person made the Dana section today in English online as "html" avaliable to share it here and possible to be shared further.

A very good and importand question, Ta Ron raised, since it is broadly not so good understood and especially within the group of people who already have faith in the benefit of Dana an see even reason why such is good made, it is always a topic, Ta Ron, and my person explains this again and again.

- Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa - (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/homage_en.html)

1. From our literary heir of what the Buddha talked, it is clear: the kind of receiver in regard of virtures is a criteria for the value of Dana. As most known sample the Issattha Sutta: Archery Skills (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/sn/sn03/sn03.024.than_en.html), which not only says that "high results can be expected if giving to worthy one" (like SN 3.24 (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/sn/sn03/sn03.024.than_en.html), AN 3.57 (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.057.than_en.html) but also encourages so.

So from a literary and traditional aspect there is not Discussion on this topic, also learned do not disagree.

So, now there is the matter of intention counts and this is where most errors are found since people forget that not knowing/or wrong assuming (moha) is also an unskillful. Further, many mistake in this relation fare away purpose (seeking for an aim) with intention that actually causes the certain action outwardly, by speech our ways of thinging further on it. The extrem sample to point that out is killing for a good: such is impossible in regard of kamma and long time effects.
The same is here: one might think "all people are equal" and out of this view one places Dana everywhere. Such Dana is always made with wrong view and therefore, in regard of the receiver aspect of low value.
Then there might be the case, that one thinks this or that person is worthy. Here to explain who is "worthy of special gifts" (outside of the other proper times, see AN 5.36 (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/an/an05/an05.036.than_en.html)), in general from Buddhas view, are the 8 persons (winner of paths and fruits), since certain defilements already abounded (e.g. moha, lobha, dosa) and people who train for the abounding of defilement. In regard of the four necessities (food, shelter, medicine, cloth), if there is a lack ALL beings are worthy, and as stated in AN 5.36, also in regard of arriver and leaving people/beings.
If meeting the four proper times for normal generosity for a good here and now, sociaty, relation, peace... every being is worthy in need, when coming or leaving also goid placed. That brings directly peace.

In regard of special gifts, which bring good fruits, it's clear that if one gives for example a rasistic leader or a thief such special gift, such is placed with strong moha and even supports and confirms unskillfulness: is not only for one self perceiveable soon of bad effects but also gives bad sample.

That is, if we draw it easier to follow, the reason why giving people who train them selves in virtue or have abounded fetters, are of more positive effect for one self and all others. If one feeds or benefits someone who is open to all unskillful deeds, then one increases danger for one self and others with it. Obligation can not be expected from a wordling as well, to be save for one self. So if one gives to people without virtue, no tendency to take on such, one does nothing good for all. That is way most charity support is actually not at all benefical if it is more then help in need or new comers, leaving people (refugee...). Supporting unvirtuos is not wise, like feeding pretators well. They will use all additional power not in a benefical way.

Now there is again the question of not knowing.

If one places special Dana for a monk, good behaviour as far as seen, accidently meeting, and ones mind is directed to the worthy Sangha (Nobles and Follower), this is a well placed Sangha-Dana.

If one meets a monk, not well in his conduct, thinks that does not matter if thinking on the Sangha, such, if expecting much benefit from the deed, will not work, because it is again based on wrong view, thinking a person not respecting the three juwels to support, will bring indirect benefit.

Again here, a hungry person, lacking of foid, even if a killer is worthy of gifts, but not special. So if meeting a "bad" monk begging for his fundamental need, its good to regard this as normal proper charity and not dedicated for the Sangha.

Since not Noble people are not able to realky figure out who is a worthy one, its always adviced to direct the mind to the Noble Sangha. But my person guesses this topic was good explained already in the OP by late Ven. Bhante.

To make as less possible mistakes its good to be well informed how to recognize a person of integrity: Into the Stream (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/lib/study/into_the_stream_en.html) contains a lot of information in this regard.

So only if one is really well informed and/or already securre, one should place a special sacrify, outside of the four other times, personal directed "for him, because he is a good, a worthy."

One iften sees such discussions like "whom would you give first? a starving child or an Arahat" and its actually sad to see the lack of faith or right view under "Buddhists" voting for the most for lacking ordinary people before a worthy one.

But that is the outcome in a sociaty of general wrong view where it is usuall to give first to the children and at last to the parents, meaning not knowing what comes first, is higher, and what lower. Such staight forward explainings are therefore in modern world regarded of not "political correct" an will meet much critic.

So here at last the advice, if depending and ensnared deep in such a sociaty it can lead to short-timely backwards to support clear and encourage in skillful ways, like if you would raise the voice to loud living under a bad regime, lets say communists, since that fits here well. If you have a good position, the needed freedom and high estimate, it's a gift for many if you encourage others to place their gifts and votes into the great field of merits, the Sangha as well the support of those walking behind and train themselves, not to speak of the ideal Sangha of the Noble ones and their follower, people with no doubt in regard of the Buddha and his good teachings, the unexcelled field of merits for a benefit for the whole world and their beings and possible lasting of what gives many the possibility to walk upwards and beyound.

My person hopes he could give satisfying and possible understandable answer. Please may Nyom Ta (grandfather) not hesitate to ask again and again, since knowing that it is for the most not possible long to keep rigyt in mind, even if at occation understood.

Actually it requires very much wisdom and firm right view, to be able to maje continuously Dana with most benefical results aside of luck met perfect mind states. It's needed to speak much about this topic and discuss it encourage often.

A raw ranking based on it, in regard of worthy (general, can differ in cases aside of Noble Ones):

- Ordinary beings
- Ordinary people
- Ordinary beings hungry, lacking existencial needs
- Normal friends and wordily fellows
- Normal elders
People of goodness:
- Wordily teachers
- Ones family and relatives
- Ones first goods, parents
- People keeping 5 precepts
- People keeping 8 pr.
- People keeping 10 precepts
- Homeless 10 precepts
- Samanera
- Young Bhikkhu
- Full Bhikkhu
- Thera
- Maha Thera

Ecxelt by innwardly qualities, case by case:

- wordlings
- Layperson following the training (still enjoys sensuality)
- Recluse/monastic following the training (still enjoying sensual pleasure)
- Layperson living the wholly life in full, following the Arahats
- Recluse/monastic living the wholly live full, following the Arahats
- Noble One 1. Path winner
- 1. Fruit Winner..2, 3, 4 Patg winner
- Arahat
- Buddha

In regard of Noble Ones, Recluse excels Lay person.

My person will end here by giving a link to a maybe useful collection of suttas and teaching about it: Dana. Caga: Großzügigkeit - Generosity (http://sangham.net/index.php/topic,812.0.html)

And very importand, since doubt may arise in regard of past, do not destry good old mindstates, even if might come out that the receiver was not really the best:

Quote
Aputtaka Sutta: Heirless (2) ([url]http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/sn/sn03/sn03.020.than_en.html[/url])

Never regret a generous gift you gave in the past!! Just do better.

Grain, wealth, silver, gold,
or whatever other belongings you have;
slaves, servants, errand-runners,
& any dependents:
   you must go without taking
      any of them;
   you must leave
      all of them
         behind.

   What you do
with body, speech, or mind:
   that    is yours;
         taking
   that    you go;
   that's
   your follower,
      like a shadow
      that never leaves.

Thus you should do what is fine
as a stash for the next life.
   Acts of merit
are the support for beings
in their after-death world.


Anumodana!

Quote

Yaṃ kiñci yiṭṭhaṃ va hutaṃ va loke,
saṃvaccharaṃ yajetha puññapekkho;
Sabbampi taṃ na catubhāgameti,
abhivādanā ujjugatesu seyyo.


VERSE 108: In this world, one may make sacrificial offerings (to ordinary people), great and small, all the year round, in order to gain merit; all these offerings are not worth a quarter of the merit gained by worshipping the Noble Ones (Ariyas) who walk the right path.

[Not to speak of Billions into the world compared to just a spoon of rice but proper placed]

Story to Dhp 108 ([url]http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/kn/dhp/dhp.08.bpit_en.html#s-dhp-107[/url])


Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 13, 2017, 08:48:45 am
In addition, as just came to mind a useful way, in regard of not "failing" a gift in regard of the receiver is to speak out ones intent loud, since with it certain amount of the "danger" to approach the wrong receiver is shared or given further (he could possible not read your mind and use the gift as you wish or reject it, not possible to keep if honest.

From a talk given for some time:

Quote
Details on what may be given as alms: Tips on Alms giving ([url]http://sangham.net/index.php/topic,8189.0.html[/url])

The best wish you may give as crown on your alms, as far as merits can benefit in the world and beyoun (from my persons view, Note it's not supra mundane yet)

May the Ven. (you, or who ever approached in this way) accept this offering food of mine, and may this be a support for the highest and most compassionate goal he strives and has left home, to become another Arahat soon if not yet, have long live, honor, well-being and strengh, so that he might be an unexcelled field of merits for many a long time.

In the case he fails to enter the path or receives it without such aspiration and effort, you have one in dept and a future servant, slave or supporter. In the case he matches the high value of your gift, you might never fail to have best connection to the Noble Ones and the path. (This is how big and good rulers, leaders, with lot of servants and surounded by wise appear in this world)

Of course such a wish has to be honest and from deep in the heart, and not just a win-win strategy. Pure heart always wins, there is no lose in giving at all.

On formal citations (note: not required), see: Formal Offerings ([url]http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/lib/authors/dhammayut/chanting_en.html#offerings[/url])

Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: francis on September 13, 2017, 08:50:20 am
Dana, its meaning is pretty simple.

It means giving without judgement or expecting something in return.

Easy to say, difficult to practice.

:namaste:
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 13, 2017, 10:13:49 am
Only a Noble One is able to do such, and even so he would judge in regard of the reciver, the receivers tendency, Francis, at least not to bring in miscredity the Noble One in regard of what has been given to them in faith.

Giving requires an intent (not to misstake if something is taken from one. Such can be taken without judgement, since not the actor at first place. Also if asked for something it's possible to follow such "force" merely neuter)

A perfect giver/giving sees of course "just" deeds (which are nevertheless judged and intented) and not false perveived Atmans giving and receiving. So is it for a perfect receiver/receiving as well.

So just this statement is for sure much to less, especially for a wordling and for training. Taken that an ordinaly person would not be able to trace even gross lobha-mindstates. Just think how often "for free" or "I don't want anything back" is stated.

Such believes that it is so easy are for example the reason why even Dhamma is cast of, to possible make to take ownership by everyone.

The is nothing free in (this) world. Giving as well as taking creates boundage, one way torward world (for example if not judging such) and one way torward Nibbana.

As told before, if giving with a notion of all are equal, that is wrong view, would not easy be Nibbana leading Dana.

The Buddha knowing that well, did therefore nowhere placed equanimity above proper. And it will be hard to even construct such simple sentence out of his Dhamma.

Bhagavato is the name for a being of real possession able to give, One who is a Sharer, a real Liberal.

May Francis and othrrs be able to receive this gift of possible clarefying this case in regard of Buddha-Dhamma.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: francis on September 14, 2017, 04:21:48 am
Only a Noble One is able to do such, and even so he would judge in regard of the reciver, the receivers tendency, Francis, at least not to bring in miscredity the Noble One in regard of what has been given to them in faith.

Giving requires an intent (not to misstake if something is taken from one. Such can be taken without judgement, since not the actor at first place. Also if asked for something it's possible to follow such "force" merely neuter)

A perfect giver/giving sees of course "just" deeds (which are nevertheless judged and intented) and not false perveived Atmans giving and receiving. So is it for a perfect receiver/receiving as well.

So just this statement is for sure much to less, especially for a wordling and for training. Taken that an ordinaly person would not be able to trace even gross lobha-mindstates. Just think how often "for free" or "I don't want anything back" is stated.

Such believes that it is so easy are for example the reason why even Dhamma is cast of, to possible make to take ownership by everyone.

The is nothing free in (this) world. Giving as well as taking creates boundage, one way torward world (for example if not judging such) and one way torward Nibbana.

As told before, if giving with a notion of all are equal, that is wrong view, would not easy be Nibbana leading Dana.

The Buddha knowing that well, did therefore nowhere placed equanimity above proper. And it will be hard to even construct such simple sentence out of his Dhamma.

Bhagavato is the name for a being of real possession able to give, One who is a Sharer, a real Liberal.

May Francis and othrrs be able to receive this gift of possible clarefying this case in regard of Buddha-Dhamma.

Hi there Samana Johann,

Perhaps, you are over thinking it a bit.

Like a lot of thing, you need to practice. 

 :namaste:
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 14, 2017, 04:46:44 am
That is always a good advice, Francis, maybe it sounds, appears a little bit "not knowing with whom talking about, not knowing where I am", speaking to one having given all his outwardly possessions, without exception, just carring eight things with him, from place to place (what of course one is sometimes hard to assume or give in advanced, not yet knowing what the fullfillment of dana-parami "takes"). But taken generally, if not approaching someone direct without good judgement and informed with "you" but with "one", yes, good in so far, if we rather then develope householder equanimity, learn to judge on the way of making the Dana-Parami complete, for never take on everything again. There are many taking ang giving, taking, eating and giving, taking, eating and giving... turning around, being satisfied with householder equanimity.At the same time there are requests, needs, approaches torward him, possible to fullfill, duties, possibilities for letting go. He, dwelling and seeking pleasure in householder - equanimity, takes it, his equanimity "i give so much" and let the cases rest, "it's not mine, not me..." with ease. Even thinking the fundation for training the path effective, is already fullfilled.

It's not possible for one clinging to any possession to give without wanting anything back, and even if that is fullfilled, he, a Noble one, would judge the receivers tend, intented to give, at least also in regard of his/her need.

Again, if asked for something, it might be different. Yet, the one dwelling in householder-equanimity, would not be reactive on needs, not attentive, not obligated at first place.

What do you think? Would it be possible to take without good judgement, eat what is fine, and share what is over without judging again? What does Francis think, does such have any benefical or merely not benefical effects?

If it would not importand to speak about, why would one take on an issue, supposed it has not an unskillful intent?
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: francis on September 14, 2017, 05:25:06 am
That is always a good advice, Francis, maybe it sounds, appears a little bit "not knowing with whom talking about, not knowing where I am", speaking to one having given all his outwardly possessions, without exception, just carring eight things with him, from place to place (what of course one is sometimes hard to assume or give in advanced, not yet knowing what the fullfillment of dana-parami "takes"). But taken generally, if not approaching someone direct without good judgement and informed with "you" but with "one", yes, good in so far, if we rather then develope householder equanimity, learn to judge on the way of making the Dana-Parami complete, for never take on everything again. There are many taking ang giving, taking, eating and giving, taking, eating and giving... turning around, being satisfied with householder equanimity.At the same time there are requests, needs, approaches torward him, possible to fullfill, duties, possibilities for letting go. He, dwelling and seeking pleasure in householder - equanimity, takes it, his equanimity "i give so much" and let the cases rest, "it's not mine, not me..." with ease. Even thinking the fundation for training the path effective, is already fullfilled.

It's not possible for one clinging to any possession to give without wanting anything back, and even if that is fullfilled, he, a Noble one, would judge the receivers tend, intented to give, at least also in regard of his/her need.

Again, if asked for something, it might be different. Yet, the one dwelling in householder-equanimity, would not be reactive on needs, not attentive, not obligated at first place.

What do you think? Would it be possible to take without good judgement, eat what is fine, and share what is over without judging again? What does Francis think, does such have any benefical or merely not benefical effects?

If it would not importand to speak about, why would one take on an issue, supposed it has not an unskillful intent?


Hi Samana Johann,

I'm not sure where you are coming from.

But I think this line from an ancient bodhisattva, sums it up pretty well.

Luke 20:45-21:4

[21:1] As he looked up, Jesus saw the rich putting their gifts into the temple treasury. [2] He also saw a poor widow put in two very small copper coins. [3] "I tell you the truth," he said, "this poor widow has put in more than all the others. [4] All these people gave their gifts out of their wealth; but she out of her poverty put in all she had to live on."
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 14, 2017, 05:37:10 am
Jesus... come on, take dwelling here, take the share of what is normally with equanimity is throw away, dwelling allone, just taking care of himself, like the Devas praise, it able to keep the precepts of the Brahmacariya.

This practice is so importand, for its not possible to reach even a Jhana, not spoken from path or fruit, if there is a little stinginess (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/an/an05/an05.254.than_en.html) left, yet high Dana is even more difficult as to give what is needed our wished, asked for.

Quote
Dhana Sutta: Treasure ([url]http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/an/an07/an07.006.than_en.html[/url])

"And what is the treasure of generosity? There is the case of a disciple of the noble ones, his awareness cleansed of the stain of stinginess, living at home, freely generous, openhanded, delighting in being magnanimous, responsive to requests, delighting in the distribution of alms. This is called the treasure of generosity.


Note, that this "the treasure of generosity" comes in the line of seven, at the end, before wisdom, driven by first the treasure of conviction,folled by the treasure of virtue, the treasure of conscience, the treasure of concern, the treasure of listening. All incl. the treasure-ouse generosity need a lot of judgement and attentiveness.

It's impossible that "generosity" not founded on the five previous is a treasure. Most it's just a perfect cheating game of defilements and the benefical seeming of undeveloped wisdoms householder equanimity.

Practice giving, letting go, do such, where ever might be a possibility, and possibilities of making sacrifies of great benefit, are moreover, very, very seldom to meet, since not many who could give such possibility.

Poorness has causes! And especially if you are "rather poor", give, give, give...
to what ever is in proper time and worthy of gifts:

Quote
Cula-kammavibhanga Sutta: The Shorter Analysis of Action ([url]http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/mn/mn.135.than_en.html[/url])

"There is the case where a woman or man is not a giver of food, drink, cloth, sandals, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings, or lighting to brahmans or contemplatives. Through having adopted & carried out such actions, on the break-up of the body, after death he/she reappears in the plane of deprivation... If instead he/she comes to the human state, he/she is poor wherever reborn. This is the way leading to poverty: not to be a giver of food, drink, cloth, sandals, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings, or lighting to brahmans or contemplatives.


May who ever able, have joy and take on the Buddhas Dhamma, shared here. May the Devas inform those who are yet not aware.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: francis on September 14, 2017, 06:04:48 am
Hi again Samana Johann,

The meaning of dana is pretty simple.

It means giving without judgement or expecting something in return.

Easy to say, difficult to practice.

Sorry, you can quote until the cows come home, but if you don't get it, you don't get it.

Practice helps.

 :namaste:
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 14, 2017, 06:34:08 am
Then, Francis, let me ask you, just to know if Francis knows what he is talking about:

Has Fancis give wife, children, home, rightous, with own effort gained goid wealth, his companies, cars, friends, honor, name, skills, his kingdom and nationality, what ever possessing, without expecting anything, not even kept an opening for anyone to get anything back? Then, while having given all aside of just one bag, left all signs of an householder behind, living on alms, giving steady to poor even richer, and gifts in proper time, skill, time what ever is just in need? Then, after having given everything, just having a given almsbowl and a piece of garment left, giving even the householders comfortable clothes, letting verything behind, after having seen that all what this world lacks of is conviction and those who could seriously give? Has Francis experiance of the parami Dana in all it's aspects, knowing mind in regard it's dark places in regard of outwardly things, from all possible aspects? Is he after having done the gross and fine task, step by step, without rolling back, penetrated and knowing each of this, only than able to give, with nothing to expect.

It's actually, based on right view not really difficult at all. So is it to talk on things one actually does really not know, but builds on ideas.

It is not wrong to share ones merits, not at all, can be given without expecting anything, or to inspire, invite to rejoice and possible see that it is possible not just antik talk. Of course, one can be not well be asked for such, and then turning to householder-equanimity, rejecting the request, dwell again holding on all ones possession, stingy and in householder-equanimity?

So let others know of your skills and possessions, share them like one possessing the treasure of generosity. It will then also easier to talk, after Francis has serious reflected what he can give in this case. Not only because others would know more of what he talks about, when encouraging others to practise, even such having done this task already to an end.

Having become even one no more obligated, rightously, one no  more in need to doing Dana (http://www.freesangha.com/forums/beginner's-buddhism/dana-(generosity-charity)-'abhidhamma-in-daily-life-'/#post_ved), yet if giving what can really possessed, one still judges of what and whom, how and when to give.

Francis here given possibility.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Solodris on September 14, 2017, 07:22:26 am
Generosity plain and simple is the act of generating methods of practice that fits into the modern life.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 14, 2017, 07:53:05 am
Generosity plain and simple is the act of generating methods of practice that fits into the modern life.
So what does one actually give, expecting that if fits to ones ideas and desire to live a modern (run-a-mill-mans prevered, majority disighned) live, Solodris? Maybe reminding that generosity is not something which is ordinary and rare. Something that fits to ones ideas and desires, is seldom in the sphere of generosity and would even more seldom go against the grain of greed.

The Dana what Solodris seems to speak of, is loka-dana, a basic requirement to keep up a health and stabile sociaty, stay on the same level, to do not fall down, but does not lead upwards, not to speak about lokutara, beyound the world.

Maybe Solodris likes to be so generous to explain his thought and idea further, so that it is possible to judge right, if it fits to be Dana contuctive reaching and practicing the Eightfolf path or to reach higher states, according to the Dhamma, for possible correction, reward of his gift.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Solodris on September 14, 2017, 08:08:07 am
Faith and clarity.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 14, 2017, 08:12:21 am
Generosity plain and simple is the act of generating methods of practice that fits into the modern life.
So what does one actually give, expecting that if fits to ones ideas and desire to live a modern (run-a-mill-mans prevered, majority disighned) live, Solodris? Maybe reminding that generosity is not something which is ordinary and rare. Something that fits to ones ideas and desires, is seldom in the sphere of generosity and would even more seldom go against the grain of greed.

Faith and clarity.
In what? Modern live and ones ideas and desire in it? My person does not think that Solodris likes to keep it here so open, or does he?

Giving is something being always do, all the time, but simply just for their modern live and for outwardly gain with it.

The more we give up old wisdom, skillful, that what is praised by the wise, the more modern becomes world and life. Willing to sacrify all for modern live and pleasure with it, even the whole earth.

Maybe it's good to let you discuss this topic with the given further with your friends and community here, and give the space to do such, draw back here a little. Let it be known, if wished, if external imput could help.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Solodris on September 14, 2017, 09:29:15 am
*deleted*
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: francis on September 14, 2017, 06:11:32 pm
Then, Francis, let me ask you, just to know if Francis knows what he is talking about:

Has Fancis give wife, children, home, rightous, with own effort gained goid wealth, his companies, cars, friends, honor, name, skills, his kingdom and nationality, what ever possessing, without expecting anything, not even kept an opening for anyone to get anything back? Then, while having given all aside of just one bag, left all signs of an householder behind, living on alms, giving steady to poor even richer, and gifts in proper time, skill, time what ever is just in need? Then, after having given everything, just having a given almsbowl and a piece of garment left, giving even the householders comfortable clothes, letting verything behind, after having seen that all what this world lacks of is conviction and those who could seriously give? Has Francis experiance of the parami Dana in all it's aspects, knowing mind in regard it's dark places in regard of outwardly things, from all possible aspects? Is he after having done the gross and fine task, step by step, without rolling back, penetrated and knowing each of this, only than able to give, with nothing to expect.

It's actually, based on right view not really difficult at all. So is it to talk on things one actually does really not know, but builds on ideas.

It is not wrong to share ones merits, not at all, can be given without expecting anything, or to inspire, invite to rejoice and possible see that it is possible not just antik talk. Of course, one can be not well be asked for such, and then turning to householder-equanimity, rejecting the request, dwell again holding on all ones possession, stingy and in householder-equanimity?

So let others know of your skills and possessions, share them like one possessing the treasure of generosity. It will then also easier to talk, after Francis has serious reflected what he can give in this case. Not only because others would know more of what he talks about, when encouraging others to practise, even such having done this task already to an end.

Having become even one no more obligated, rightously, one no  more in need to doing Dana ([url]http://www.freesangha.com/forums/beginner's-buddhism/dana-(generosity-charity)-'abhidhamma-in-daily-life-'/#post_ved[/url]), yet if giving what can really possessed, one still judges of what and whom, how and when to give.

Francis here given possibility.


Hi Samana Johann,

I’ve attempted to explain dana, sorry it doesn’t measure up. Nevertheless, I will leave you with another definition.

The Ten Perfections of Theravada Buddhism (https://www.thoughtco.com/the-perfections-of-theravada-buddhism-449617)

01. Perfection of Giving (Dana)

‘When giving, or generosity, is perfected, it is selfless. There is no measure of gaining or losing. There are no strings attached and no expectations of thanks or reciprocation. The giving is gratifying in and of itself, and there is no hint of reluctance or loss to the act of giving.

Giving in this unencumbered way loosens the grip of greed and helps to develop non-attachment. Such giving also develops virtue and leads naturally to the next perfection, morality (sila).’

:namaste:
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 14, 2017, 11:08:03 pm
Perfect, not different, Fancis, the work of a person, with right view. Maybe Francis sees also here, in this interpretation, that nobody of this tradition would advice to do Dana without judgement.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Solodris on September 15, 2017, 09:38:01 pm
*deleted*
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: francis on September 15, 2017, 09:39:01 pm
Perfect, not different, Fancis, the work of a person, with right view. Maybe Francis sees also here, in this interpretation, that nobody of this tradition would advice to do Dana without judgement.


Hi there Samana Johann,

Instead of saying dana is giving without judgement, it might have been better to say dana is giving impartially.

For example,

‘Attachment cannot exist at the same time as generosity. When one is truly generous one gives impartially and does not restrict one's generosity to people one likes or to the members of one's family'  Dana The Practice of Giving. (http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/various/wheel367.html)

:namaste:
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Solodris on September 15, 2017, 10:31:26 pm
A practice in non-attachment seem to really touch the heart of compassion.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Solodris on September 16, 2017, 12:00:15 am
A lesson in Dana by a moment of temporary confusion, very fulfilling.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 16, 2017, 05:18:42 pm
Perfect, not different, Fancis, the work of a person, with right view. Maybe Francis sees also here, in this interpretation, that nobody of this tradition would advice to do Dana without judgement.


Hi there Samana Johann,

Instead of saying dana is giving without judgement, it might have been better to say dana is giving impartially.

For example,

‘Attachment cannot exist at the same time as generosity. When one is truly generous one gives impartially and does not restrict one's generosity to people one likes or to the members of one's family'  Dana The Practice of Giving. ([url]http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/various/wheel367.html[/url])

:namaste:

Francis, although it's popular and modern to count on a (householder)-equanimity approach, the teachings on giving of the Buddha do not display such. It's because one places ones joy in giving at the right place that one performes fruitful giving.

Quote
Issattha Sutta: Archery Skills ([url]http://www.zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/sn/sn03/sn03.024.than_en.html[/url])


"In a herd of cattle,
   whether black, white,
   ruddy, brown,
   dappled, uniform,
   or pigeon gray:
if a bull is born  —
   tame, enduring,
   consummate in strength,
   & swift  —
people yoke him to burdens,
regardless of his color.
In the same way,
wherever one is born
among human beings  —
   noble warriors, brahmans,
   merchants, workers,
   outcastes, or scavengers  —
if one is tame, with good practices,
righteous, consummate in virtue,
a speaker of truth, with conscience at heart,
   one
who's abandoned     birth & death,
completed   the holy life
put down    the burden,
done    the task
   fermentation-free,
gone beyond     all dhammas,
through lack of clinging    unbound:

   offerings to this spotless field
   bear an abundance of fruit.

But fools, unknowing,
dull,   uninformed,
give gifts outside
and don't come near the good.
While those who do come near the good
   —  regarded as enlightened,
      wise  —
whose trust in the One Well-gone
   has taken root,
   is established & firm:
they go to the world of the devas
or are reborn here in good family.
   Step by step
   they reach
   Unbinding
      : they
      who are wise."


One should also not forget, that even oneself is not much ensnared, the receiver could be strongly, which has also its effects. So its the wise way to follow the timely giving.

As soon one gives outside the proper time, one increases boundage and debts into the world.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Solodris on September 16, 2017, 05:33:23 pm
I will be sure to keep more in touch with equanimity.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 16, 2017, 09:53:12 pm
Because it is a perfect tool for excuse not only ones duty but also to aviod to give what one can not identify as one own. It needs a lot of self honesty and training to penetrate ones gross defilements.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: francis on September 17, 2017, 02:32:34 am
Hi there Samana Johann,

Francis, although it's popular and modern to count on a (householder)-equanimity approach, the teachings on giving of the Buddha do not display such. It's because one places ones joy in giving at the right place that one performes fruitful giving.

I never said dana should not bring joy.

Issattha Sutta: Archery Skills SN 3.24
In a herd of cattle,
whether black, white,
ruddy, brown,
dappled, uniform,
or pigeon gray: ….

I was not familiar with the sutta, so I looked it up. It appears to be a rebuttal to accusations that the Buddha said gifts should only be given to him and his followers, and not to others.

One should also not forget, that even oneself is not much ensnared, the receiver could be strongly, which has also its effects. So its the wise way to follow the timely giving.

As soon one gives outside the proper time, one increases boundage and debts into the world.

I’m letting that one go through to the keeper.

Because it is a perfect tool for excuse not only ones duty but also to aviod to give what one can not identify as one own. It needs a lot of self honesty and training to penetrate ones gross defilements.

I think that argument goes both ways. Dana should not be used as an excuse to intimidate people into giving. If you think about it honestly, it’s not in the spirit of dana. 

 :namaste:
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 17, 2017, 04:37:55 pm
Generisity is not something inherent in a person, but trained. In SEAsia, once children can walk they are taught and after a while they have a lot of joy: blessed. Much more then the "blessed" children waiting greedy on S. Claus.

Hi there Samana Johann,

Francis, although it's popular and modern to count on a (householder)-equanimity approach, the teachings on giving of the Buddha do not display such. It's because one places ones joy in giving at the right place that one performes fruitful giving.


I never said dana should not bring joy.

My person either. Read again. If joy is put on the right place (worthy to be given, it will bear much fruits.
Issattha Sutta: Archery Skills SN 3.24
In a herd of cattle,
whether black, white,
ruddy, brown,
dappled, uniform,
or pigeon gray: ….


I was not familiar with the sutta, so I looked it up. It appears to be a rebuttal to accusations that the Buddha said gifts should only be given to him and his followers, and not to others.

Actually in relevance to gain much benefit from it, he told many many times. He might have lighten a certain view but he did not cheat people in regard of truth, by a "everything is great" account.
One should also not forget, that even oneself is not much ensnared, the receiver could be strongly, which has also its effects. So its the wise way to follow the timely giving.

As soon one gives outside the proper time, one increases boundage and debts into the world.


I’m letting that one go through to the keeper.

Because it is a perfect tool for excuse not only ones duty but also to aviod to give what one can not identify as one own. It needs a lot of self honesty and training to penetrate ones gross defilements.


I think that argument goes both ways. Dana should not be used as an excuse to intimidate people into giving. If you think about it honestly, it’s not in the spirit of dana. 

 :namaste:


That's a typical modern approach. If having the notion that it was suggest by wiser, not the own idea, it does not taste, how ever clear and right it might be. It descripes a person who practices for one self and others, encouraging to generosity. One not able taking good advices is hardily able to be generous, like all of his practice it's merely an ego-trip based on own ideas. There is much to overcome if then stick what the Buddha suggeset, that's where the training happens, if it goes against the grain. Now latest their this equanimity approach has an end. Why? Because it was just a tool for excuse, Francis.

Quote
Iti §75  ([url]http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/kn/iti/iti.3.050-099.than_en.html#iti-075[/url])

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "These three types of persons can be found existing in the world. Which three? One like a cloud without rain, one who rains locally, and one who rains everywhere.

"And how is a person like a cloud without rain? There is the case where a person is not a giver of food, drink, clothing, vehicles, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings, or lights to any brahmans or contemplatives, to any of the miserable, the homeless, or beggars. This is how a person is like a cloud without rain.

"And how is a person one who rains locally? There is the case where a person is a giver of food, drink, clothing, vehicles, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings, & lights to some brahmans & contemplatives, to some of the miserable, the homeless, & beggars, and not to others. This is how a person one who rains locally.

"And how is a person one who rains everywhere? There is the case where a person gives food, drink, clothing, vehicles, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings, & lights to all brahmans & contemplatives, to all of the miserable, the homeless, & beggars. This is how a person one who rains everywhere.

"These are the three types of persons who can be found existing in the world."

Not to contemplatives,
to brahmans,
to the miserable,
nor to the homeless
does he share what he's gained:
   food,
   drinks,
   nourishment.
He, that lowest of people,
   is called a cloud with no rain.

To some he gives,
to others he doesn't:
   the intelligent call him
   one who rains locally.

A person responsive to requests,
sympathetic to all beings,
delighting in distributing alms:
   "Give to them!
   Give!"
   he says.
As a cloud — resounding, thundering — rains,
   filling with water, drenching
   the plateaus & gullies:
      a person like this
      is like that.
Having rightly amassed
wealth attained through initiative,
he satisfies fully with food & drink
those fallen into
the homeless state.

Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 17, 2017, 04:51:40 pm
Here also a Sutta, that shows that the receiver factor is not a later development:

Quote
Dana Sutta: Giving ([url]http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/an/an06/an06.037.than_en.html[/url])

On one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery. And on that occasion the lay woman Velukandaki, Nanda's mother, had established a donation endowed with six factors for the community of monks headed by Sariputta & Moggallana. The Blessed One saw with his divine eye, surpassing the human, that the laywoman Velukandaki, Nanda's mother, had established a donation endowed with six factors for the community of monks headed by Sariputta & Moggallana. On seeing this, he addressed the monks: "Monks, the lay woman Velukandaki, Nanda's mother, has established a donation endowed with six factors for the community of monks headed by Sariputta & Moggallana.

"And how is a donation endowed with six factors? There is the case where there are the three factors of the donor, the three factors of the recipients.

"And which are the three factors of the donor? There is the case where the donor, before giving, is glad; while giving, his/her mind is bright & clear; and after giving is gratified. These are the three factors of the donor.

"And which are the three factors of the recipients? There is the case where the recipients are free of passion or are practicing for the subduing of passion; free of aversion or practicing for the subduing of aversion; and free of delusion or practicing for the subduing of delusion. These are the three factors of the recipients.

"Such are the three factors of the donor, the three factors of the recipients. And this is how a donation is endowed with six factors.

"And it is not easy to take the measure of the merit of a donation thus endowed with six factors as 'just this much a bonanza of merit, a bonanza of what is skillful — a nutriment of bliss, heavenly, resulting in bliss, leading to heaven — that leads to what is desirable, pleasing, charming, beneficial, pleasant.' It is simply reckoned as a great mass of merit, incalculable, immeasurable.[4]

"Just as it is not easy to take the measure of the great ocean as 'just this many buckets of water, just this many hundreds of buckets of water, just this many thousands of buckets of water, or just this many hundreds of thousands of buckets of water.' It is simply reckoned as a great mass of water, incalculable, immeasurable. In the same way, it is not easy to take the measure of the merit of a donation thus endowed with six factors as 'just this much a bonanza of merit, a bonanza of what is skillful — a nutriment of bliss, heavenly, resulting in bliss, leading to heaven — that leads to what is desirable, pleasing, charming, beneficial, pleasant.' It is simply reckoned as a great mass of merit, incalculable, immeasurable."

Before giving, glad;
while giving, the mind is bright & clear;
having given, one is gratified:
   This is the consummation of the sacrifice.
Free of passion, free of aversion,
free of delusion, without fermentation:
   the consummation of the field of the sacrifice,
   one restrained, leading the holy life.[5]
Having rinsed oneself,
having given with one's own hands,
   then — because of oneself,
   because of the other —[6]
that is a sacrifice yielding great fruit.
Having given thus
   — intelligent —
a person of conviction,
with awareness released,
   reappears
   — wise —
in a world of bliss
   unalloyed.

 4.    See Dhp 195-196 .
 5.    The Thai edition puts this sentence in the singular form, as translated here. The PTS and Burmese editions put it in the plural.
 6.    In other words, because one is possessed of the three factors of the donor, and the other — the recipient — is possessed of the three factors of the recipient.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: francis on September 18, 2017, 05:10:03 am
That's a typical modern approach. If having the notion that it was suggest by wiser, not the own idea, it does not taste, how ever clear and right it might be. It descripes a person who practices for one self and others, encouraging to generosity. One not able taking good advices is hardily able to be generous, like all of his practice it's merely an ego-trip based on own ideas. There is much to overcome if then stick what the Buddha suggeset, that's where the training happens, if it goes against the grain. Now latest their this equanimity approach has an end. Why? Because it was just a tool for excuse, Francis.

Hi Samana Johann,

Thanks, I have refined my meaning of dana since starting this conversation to - giving impartially without expecting something in return.  I’m not sure why you disagree with this understanding.  It’s certainly doesn’t imply stinginess or selfishness or ego.  Nor is it meant to discourage or excuse people from giving, after all tithing is a well-established practice in almost all religions. It’s just, I get a little jaded when people continually roll out dana to pressure people into giving, which is not in the spirit of dana. Now, this might seem a little radical, but I’m throwing it out there. Modern would be if monks started growing their own food, and stopped burdening householders. If you don’t agree, than ask yourself why Buddhism died out in India?
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 18, 2017, 07:51:39 am
It's the nature of Dhamma-Vinaya that it does not prosper where the basics are missing and it would not survive under improper means. It's may worthy to think about, that it has as good no change to even start to grow in modern world.
Where ever wrong view growed strong, in those countries are just counterfies be found. Things have causes, Francis.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: francis on September 19, 2017, 05:21:30 am
It's the nature of Dhamma-Vinaya that it does not prosper where the basics are missing and it would not survive under improper means. It's may worthy to think about, that it has as good no change to even start to grow in modern world.
Where ever wrong view growed strong, in those countries are just counterfies be found. Things have causes, Francis.


Hi Samana Johann,

The Vinaya, suspect it’s been moribund for a long time now, especially when it comes to the incorrect us of dana. I'm done arguing, so I suggest you take the time to read the Broken Buddha. (http://www.buddhistische-gesellschaft-berlin.de/downloads/brokenbuddhanew.pdf) I read it a while ago, but it came to mind as this discussion progressed. It’s not complementary, but look at it as blueprint for all the things that need to change, for Buddhism to grow in a modern world.
Title: Re: Dana (Generosity, Charity) "Abhidhamma in daily life "
Post by: Samana Johann on September 19, 2017, 06:14:28 pm
See... that's how the equanimity acts as excuse and that's why the Buddha taught so much about wothy once and thieves (fox and the graps).

My person would suggest Francis not to associate with fools, but that is often difficult because ones tendency often disagrees with the Buddha like popular monks without the sightest respect for Dhamma & Vinaya. That is like if a highway robber writes a book "how to reduce thieving".

Stay by the Buddha and away from people without faith an respect.

(http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-GsDgoM0JfWQ/VntHdTsLpnI/AAAAAAAAF7I/eoYOlYa2GkE/s400/DSCN2911.JPG)

As it is clear, Francis should invest much time in learning from the Dhamma and Vinaya and practice Dana seriously and not just "equanimity in giving".

The modern world is terrible corrupted by monks incapable to keep Vinaya and live like homeless but simply teach for a livelihood, for Dana...

It's, as told already, impossible that the Savaka Sangha will ever establish in modern world, because wrong view it more than strong. Even if people (incl. their kept monks, meditate, they are incapable to do even the basics.

Same kind meet each others and if people trust the Buddha a little, they would know that conditions outwardly can only be changed from within, but as someone with neighter faith nor understanding, one asked rather to give at first place "equanimiously..." Defilements will find 1001 ecxuses to let greed and delusion look justyfied, never the mind would raise a honest question, putting the defilements arguements into question.

My person have not seen or heard of any Sangha that does not make their livelihood by teaching in the modern world and that is really sad, for both parts, never taking part but if good practising the Uposatha of the cowards but for the most the Uposatha of the Jain.

Maybe a talk might be able to make one a little more understanding: Sensitivity through Generosity (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/lib/authors/thanissaro/sensitivity_en.html)
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