Author Topic: Akālika  (Read 5930 times)

Offline Dmytro

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Akālika
« on: July 15, 2013, 07:35:36 am »
Hello Pali friends,

Let's discuss this term in some detail.

From the Margaret Cone's dictionary:

akālika,
1. not dependent on time; not limited to a particular time; immediate, immediately effective;
2. not at a usual or expected time; unseasonable;

Critical Pali Dictionary:
a-kālika, mfn., 1. out of season, exceptional; Mil 114,7 (~aṁ kadācuppattikaṁ). —
2. immediate, present, at hand; Ja III 394,19'; in the formula:
sanditthiko, ~o, ehipassiko, etc., DN II 93,32 (Vism 216,16); AN I 156,28 (Mp), 227,13 (Mp); — Sn 567 (Pj) = MN ch. 92 (Ps), Sn 1137 (Nidd II, Nidd-a, Pj) (sandiṭṭhikaṁ ~aṁ); SN II 58,4 = IV 328,21 (dhammena ditthena viditena ~ena pattena pariyogāḷhena) (Spk).

http://pali.hum.ku.dk/cpd/search.html

See also
JOHANNES BRONKHORST
Akālika in the Buddhist canon
http://my.unil.ch/serval/document/BIB_74F9A3157D8D.pdf

If we'll look at SN 12.33 -

Katamañca, bhikkhave, jarāmaraṇaṃ? ....

And what, bhikkhus, is aging-and-death?… (definition as in SN12.2)

Yato kho, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako evaṃ jarāmaraṇaṃ pajānāti, evaṃ jarāmaraṇasamudayaṃ pajānāti, evaṃ jarāmaraṇanirodhaṃ pajānāti, evaṃ jarāmaraṇanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ pajānāti, idamassa dhamme ñāṇaṃ. So iminā dhammena diṭṭhena viditena akālikena pattena pariyogāḷhena atītānāgatena yaṃ neti.
‘‘Ye kho keci atītamaddhānaṃ samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā jarāmaraṇaṃ abbhaññaṃsu, jarāmaraṇasamudayaṃ abbhaññaṃsu, jarāmaraṇanirodhaṃ abbhaññaṃsu, jarāmaraṇanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ abbhaññaṃsu, sabbe te evameva abbhaññaṃsu, seyyathāpāhaṃ etarahi.

‘‘Yepi hi keci anāgatamaddhānaṃ samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā jarāmaraṇaṃ abhijānissanti, jarāmaraṇasamudayaṃ abhijānissanti, jarāmaraṇanirodhaṃ abhijānissanti, jarāmaraṇanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ abhijānissanti, sabbe te evameva abhijānissanti, seyyathāpāhaṃ etarahīti. Idamassa anvaye ñāṇaṃ.


Bhikkhu Bodhi's translation:

"When, bhikkhus, a noble disciple thus understands aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation, this is his knowledge of the principle  (dhamma). By means of this principle (dhamma) that is seen (diṭṭha), understood (vidita), immediately attained (akālika), fathomed (patta), penetrated (pariyogāḷha), he applies the method to the past and to the future thus: 'Whatever ascetics and brahmins in the past directly knew aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation, all these directly knew it in the very same way that I do now. Whatever ascetics and brahmins in the future will directly know aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation, all these will directly know it in the very same way that I do now.' This is his knowledge of entailment."

and Bhadraka sutta:

‘‘Iminā tvaṃ, gāmaṇi, dhammena diṭṭhena viditena akālikena pattena pariyogāḷhena atītānāgate nayaṃ nehi – ‘yaṃ kho kiñci atītamaddhānaṃ dukkhaṃ uppajjamānaṃ uppajji sabbaṃ taṃ chandamūlakaṃ chandanidānaṃ. Chando hi mūlaṃ dukkhassā’ti.

"Now, headman, from what you have realized, fathomed, attained right now in the present, without regard to time, you may draw an inference with regard to the past and future: 'Whatever stress, in arising, arose for me in the past, all of it had desire as its root, had desire as its cause — for desire is the cause of stress.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn42/sn42.011.than.html

comprehension of Dhamma as timeless occurs when it is generalized from present to past and future as well.

Offline songhill

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #1 on: July 15, 2013, 10:27:10 am »
So the question is: How did B. Bodhi get, "immediately attained (akālika)" out of akālika? Nice question. I have been nosing around. Bodhi takes it up from a reference to the commentary (Saratthappakâsini, abbr: Spk) in his translation, The Connected Discourses of the Buddha {Samy. N}, page 1451, note 352. It concerns the pericope, akālikena pattena.

Offline Dmytro

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #2 on: July 15, 2013, 01:42:37 pm »
Hi Songhill,

See also note 103, page 754.

In my opinion, since there's no akālika verb, akālikena makes much more sense as an adverb, - not dependent on time, not limited to a particular time, - i.e. true in the past, present and future.

Offline songhill

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #3 on: July 15, 2013, 02:44:49 pm »
Hi Songhill,

See also note 103, page 754.

In my opinion, since there's no akālika verb, akālikena makes much more sense as an adverb, - not dependent on time, not limited to a particular time, - i.e. true in the past, present and future.

Sweet! Of late I have been reading a lot of BB's Spks. Some of them may seem like hair splitting, but in the end it all works together to contribute to a more insightful read. I hope someday that all the commentarial literature gets translated. Not too long ago I bought Masefield's commentary to the Udana. Lots of nice stuff.  :)

Offline Dmytro

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #4 on: July 15, 2013, 10:45:00 pm »
I'm glad you like it  :)

We can discuss the Commentaries in more detail at this Pali subforum, however I'm not ready to provide word-for-word English translation of commentarial passages, - this would require too much work, - just an essential meaning.

Would this be OK?

Offline Hanzze

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #5 on: July 15, 2013, 11:27:26 pm »
Quote
require too much work

Why, I am sure both of you have good time for such and both of you would enjoy it, even benefit others. Just a though. "Da ist nichts gutes, es sei den man tut es."

Offline Dairy Lama

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #6 on: July 16, 2013, 01:37:33 am »
In my opinion, since there's no akālika verb, akālikena makes much more sense as an adverb, - not dependent on time, not limited to a particular time, - i.e. true in the past, present and future.

This makes sense Dmytro, but I also wonder if it's pointing to awakening as having a timeless quality, or being a timeless experience?
"My religion is very simple - my religion is ice-cream"

Offline francis

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #7 on: July 16, 2013, 03:50:15 am »
Akālika - timeless, intemporal.
"Enlightenment, for a wave in the ocean, is the moment the wave realises it is water." - Thich Nhat Hanh

Offline Dmytro

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #8 on: July 16, 2013, 08:24:49 am »
Hi Spiny Norman,

This makes sense Dmytro, but I also wonder if it's pointing to awakening as having a timeless quality, or being a timeless experience?

Akālika is an epithet of Dhamma. I've not seen it applied to Bodhi (Comprehension aka Awakening).
IMO, Bodhi can be seen as an essential part of the Dhamma.

Offline Dairy Lama

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #9 on: July 17, 2013, 02:34:37 am »
Akālika is an epithet of Dhamma.

Thanks Dmytro.  So does this relate to the idea of the Dhamma being "rediscovered" by the Buddha?  I seem to recall a sutta which says the Dhamma would be true even without the Tathagata to teach it - I'll see if I can find it.
"My religion is very simple - my religion is ice-cream"

Offline Dmytro

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #10 on: July 17, 2013, 08:28:54 am »
So does this relate to the idea of the Dhamma being "rediscovered" by the Buddha?


I think yes.

From Nagara sutta:

"It is just as if a man, traveling along a wilderness track, were to see an ancient path, an ancient road, traveled by people of former times. He would follow it. Following it, he would see an ancient city, an ancient capital inhabited by people of former times, complete with parks, groves, & ponds, walled, delightful. He would go to address the king or the king's minister, saying, 'Sire, you should know that while traveling along a wilderness track I saw an ancient path... I followed it... I saw an ancient city, an ancient capital... complete with parks, groves, & ponds, walled, delightful. Sire, rebuild that city!' The king or king's minister would rebuild the city, so that at a later date the city would become powerful, rich, & well-populated, fully grown & prosperous.

"In the same way I saw an ancient path, an ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times. And what is that ancient path, that ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times? Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. That is the ancient path, the ancient road, traveled by the Rightly Self-awakened Ones of former times. I followed that path. Following it, I came to direct knowledge of aging & death, direct knowledge of the origination of aging & death, direct knowledge of the cessation of aging & death, direct knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of aging & death. I followed that path. Following it, I came to direct knowledge of birth... becoming... clinging... craving... feeling... contact... the six sense media... name-&-form... consciousness, direct knowledge of the origination of consciousness, direct knowledge of the cessation of consciousness, direct knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of consciousness. I followed that path.

"Following it, I came to direct knowledge of fabrications, direct knowledge of the origination of fabrications, direct knowledge of the cessation of fabrications, direct knowledge of the path leading to the cessation of fabrications. Knowing that directly, I have revealed it to monks, nuns, male lay followers & female lay followers, so that this holy life has become powerful, rich, detailed, well-populated, wide-spread, proclaimed among celestial & human beings."

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.065.than.html

Offline Mirko

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Re: Akālika
« Reply #11 on: December 17, 2015, 02:35:17 am »
Dhamma Greetings,


we should not leave out the PTS's entry:
http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:498.pali

I remember the Venerable U Silananda explaining it the same way:
"not delayed, immediate", with no time between kamma and vipaaka.

In my eyes, using 'timeless' is misleading, since that is too close to 'eternal'.


Best Wishes

 


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